Orthopedic conditions

Orthopedics is the branch of medicine concerned with diseases, injuries, and other conditions of the musculoskeletal system. The musculoskeletal system consists of the body's bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves.

Many conditions can affect a child's musculoskeletal system and require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview.

Fractures - A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. When a fracture occurs, it’s classified as either open or closed.

Sports Injuries - Obviously, some sports are more dangerous than others. For example, contact sports such as football can be expected to result in a higher number of injuries than a noncontact sport such as swimming. However, all types of sports have a potential for injury, whether from the trauma of contact with other players or from overuse or misuse of a body part. 

Overuse Injuries - The most common overuse injuries are jumper's knee, Little Leaguer's elbow or shoulder, osteochondritis dissecans, Sever's disease,shin splints, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis.

Sprains and Strains - The majority of sports injuries are caused by minor trauma involving muscles, ligaments, and/or tendons, including contusions (bruises), sprains and strains. The most commonly sprained or strained joint is the ankle.

Heat-Related Illnesses - Exposure to abnormal or prolonged amounts of heat and humidity without relief or adequate fluid intake can cause various types of heat-related illness. There are 3 types of heat-related illnesses - heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Treatments

Treatment for fractures
  • Splint or cast. This immobilizes the injured area to keep the bone in alignment. It protects the injured area from motion or use while the bone heals.
  • Medication. This may be needed to control pain.
  • Traction. Traction is the use of a steady pulling action to stretch certain parts of the body in a certain direction. Traction often uses pulleys, strings, weights, and a metal frame attached over or on the bed. The purpose of traction is to stretch the muscles and tendons around the broken bone to help the bone ends to align and heal.
  • Surgery. Surgery may be needed to put certain types of broken bones back into place. Occasionally, internal fixation (metal rods or pins located inside the bone) or external fixation devices (metal rods or pins located outside of the body) are used to hold the bone fragments in place while they heal.
Fractures can take many months to heal as broken bones “knit” back together when new bone is formed between the broken parts.

Treatment for sports injuries
Treatment for sports injuries vary greatly, depending on your injury.

Treatment of overuse injuries
Initial treatment for overuse injuries includes R.I.C.E. (rest, ice, compression, and elevation).

Other treatment options may include:
  • Medicine
  • Activity restrictions
  • Splint or cast
  • Crutches or wheelchair
  • Physical therapy (to stretch and strengthen the injured muscles, ligaments, and tendons)
  • Surgery (especially if the injury is reoccurring, there is persistent pain, or if a muscle, tendon, or ligament is badly torn)
Treatment for sprains and strains
Initial treatment for a sprain or strain includes R.I.C.E. (rest, ice, compression, and elevation). Other treatment options may include:
  • Medications such as ibuprofen
  • Activity restrictions
  • Splint or cast
  • Crutches or wheelchair
  • Physical therapy (to stretch and strengthen the injured muscles, ligaments, and tendons)
  • Surgery (especially if the injury is reoccurring or if a muscle, tendon, or ligament is badly torn)
Treatment for heat-related illnesses
For heat cramps, move to a cool place and rest. Remove excess clothing and place cool cloths on your skin. Have someone fan you if possible. Drink cool sports drinks containing salt and sugar. Stretch cramped muscles slowly and gently.

Treatment for heat exhaustion is similar. Move to a cool place and rest. Remove excess clothing and place cool cloths on your skin. Have someone fan you if possible. Drink cool sports drinks containing salt and sugar. If you do not feel better after drinking, or if you can't drink, you need to go to the hospital.

Heat stroke is the most severe heat-related illness. If you think someone is experiencing heat stroke, move them to a cool place and call 911 immediately. Remove excess clothing and cover skin with cool water. If you can get ice packs, place them under the person's armpits and in the groin area.
 
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Treatments for Orthopedic conditions

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Symptoms and Screenings for Orthopedic conditions

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Causes and Preventions for Orthopedic conditions

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Education and Resources for Orthopedic conditions

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Support groups for Orthopedic conditions

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