The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, just past the stomach. Duodenitis is inflammation of the lining of the duodenum. This sheet tells you more about the condition.

Causes of duodenitis

The most common cause of duodenitis is infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria. Another common cause is long-term use of NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen). Less commonly, duodenitis occurs along with another health problem, such as Crohn’s disease. Drinking alcohol, smoking, or taking certain medications also may make duodenitis more likely to occur.

Symptoms of duodenitis

The condition may cause no symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they can include:

  • Burning, cramping, or hunger-like pain in your stomach

  • Gas or a bloated feeling

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Feeling full soon after starting a meal

Diagnosing duodenitis

  • If duodenitis is suspected, an upper endoscopy with biopsy will be done to confirm it. During this test, a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera on the end (endoscope) is used. The scope is moved down your throat to the stomach and into the duodenum. The scope sends images of the duodenum to a video screen. Small samples (biopsy) of the lining of the duodenum may be taken. These samples may be sent to a lab for testing for H. pylori.

  • To check for H. pylori or other pathogens, a blood, stool, gastric biopsy, or breath test may be done. Samples of blood or stool are taken and tested in a lab. For a breath test, you swallow a harmless compound. If H. pylori bacteria are present, extra carbon dioxide gas can then be detected in your breath.

  • In rare cases, an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series is done. This gives more information about the digestive tract. This procedure takes x-rays of the upper GI tract from the mouth to the small intestine.


Duodenitis is treated using one or more of the following:

  • Antibiotic medications to kill H. pylori

  • Medications to reduce the amount of acid the stomach makes

  • Stopping NSAIDs such as aspirin and ibuprofen

  • Avoiding alcohol

  • Stopping smoking

Your health care provider can tell you more about what treatments are needed.

Recovery and follow-up

With treatment, most cases of duodenitis clear up completely. In rare cases, duodenitis can be an ongoing (chronic) problem or can develop into a duodenal ulcer. If your symptoms do not improve or if they go away and come back, let your health care provider know. In such cases, regular health care provider visits and treatments are needed to manage your condition. 

When to call the doctor

Call your doctor right away if you have any of the following:

  • Fever of 100.4°F (38.0°C) or higher

  • Nausea or vomiting (vomit may be bloody or look like coffee grounds)

  • Dark, tarry, or bloody stools

  • Sudden or severe abdominal pain

  • Pain that does not improve with treatment

  • Rapid weight loss

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Treatments for Duodenitis

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Symptoms and Screenings for Duodenitis

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Causes and Preventions for Duodenitis

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Education and Resources for Duodenitis

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Support groups for Duodenitis

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Learn More about Duodenitis

Vidant Health can connect you to health care professionals to help you understand your condition and guide you through the treatment process. Let’s chat.

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