Children - Low/Very Low Birth Weight

Low Birth Weight

What is low birth weight?

Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams). An average newborn usually weighs about 8 pounds. A low-birth-weight baby may be healthy even though he or she is small. But a low-birth-weight baby can also have many serious health problems.

What causes low birth weight?

Low birth weight is most often caused by being born too early (premature birth). That means before 37 weeks of pregnancy. A premature baby has less time in the mother's womb (uterus) to grow and gain weight. Much of a baby's weight is gained during the last weeks of pregnancy.

Another cause of low birth weight is a condition called intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This occurs when a baby does not grow well during pregnancy. It may be because of problems with the placenta, the mother's health, or the baby's health. Babies can have IUGR and be:

  • Full term. That means born from 37 to 41 weeks of pregnancy. These babies may be physically mature, but small.
  • Premature. These babies are both very small and physically immature.

Which babies are at risk for low birth weight?

In addition to premature birth and IUGR, things that affect the pregnant woman can increase the risk of having a low birth weight baby. They include:
  • Infection during pregnancy
  • Not gaining enough weight during pregnancy
  • Previous pregnancy with a low-birth-weight baby
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol or drug use
  • Age less than 17 or more than 35 years
  • African-American background

What are the symptoms of low birth weight?

In addition to weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces, babies with low birth weight look much smaller than babies of normal birth weight. A low-birth-weight baby's head may look bigger than the rest of his or her body. He or she often looks thin with little body fat.

How is low birth weight diagnosed?

One of the main reasons for regular prenatal exams is to make sure your baby is growing well. During pregnancy, the size of your fetus is estimated in different ways. Your steady weight gain is one way of checking on fetal growth. Another way is fundal height:
  • To check fundal height, your healthcare provider measures from the top of your pubic bone to the top of your uterus (fundus).
  • Fundal height is measured in centimeters (cm). It is about the same as the number of weeks of pregnancy after the 20th week. For example, at 24 weeks' gestation, your fundal height should be close to 24 cm.
  • If the fundal height is less than expected, it may mean the baby is not growing well.

Your healthcare provider may also use fetal ultrasound to check your baby's growth and development. Ultrasound uses sound waves to create a picture of your fetus. It is a more accurate than checking fundal height. Measurements can be taken of your baby's head, belly (abdomen), and upper leg bone (femur). These measurements are used to estimate his or her weight.

Babies are weighed within the first few hours after birth. The weight is compared against the number of weeks of pregnancy (gestational age). If your baby weighs less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces), he or she has a low birth weight. Babies weighing less than 1,500 grams (3 pounds, 5 ounces) at birth are considered very low birth weight.

Very Low Birth Weight

What is very low birth weight?

Very low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 3 pounds, 4 ounces. It is very rare that babies are born this tiny. But the overall rate of very-low-birth-weight babies in the U.S. is going up. This is because more multiple birth babies are being born. Multiples are more likely to be born early and weigh less.

What causes very low birth weight?

The main cause of a very-low-birth-weight baby is premature birth. Premature means born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Very-low-birth-weight babies are often born before 30 weeks of pregnancy. A premature baby has less time in the mother’s womb to grow and gain weight. Much of a baby's weight is gained during the latter part of pregnancy.

Another cause of very low birth weight is intrauterine growth restriction. This happens when a baby does not grow well during pregnancy. It may be because of problems with the placenta, the mother's health, or birth defects. Most very-low-birth-weight babies who have intrauterine growth restriction are also born early. They are usually very small and physically immature.

Who is at risk for very low birth weight?

A baby is more likely to be very low birth weight if he or she is premature or has intrauterine growth restriction. Other things that increase the risk are tied to the mother. They include:

  • Having an infection during pregnancy
  • Not gaining enough weight during pregnancy
  • Having a previous pregnancy with a low-birth-weight baby
  • Smoking
  • Using alcohol or drugs
  • Being younger than age 17 or older than age 35
  • Being African American

What are the symptoms of very low birth weight?

Babies with very low birth weight look much smaller than other babies of normal birth weight. A very-low-birth-weight baby has a head that usually looks bigger than the rest of his or her body. A very-low-birth-weight baby often looks very thin with little body fat. Blood vessels can be easily seen through the skin.

How is very low birth weight diagnosed?

One of the main reasons for regular prenatal exams is to make sure your unborn baby is growing well. During pregnancy, the size of your baby is figured out in different ways. Your steady weight gain is one way of checking on the baby’s growth.

Another way is to measure the top of your uterus from the pubic bone. The number of centimeters measured is usually the same or close to the number of weeks of pregnancy. If the fundus measurement is low for the number of weeks, it may mean that your baby is not growing well.

Other ways to check the baby’s growth are:

  • Ultrasound, to estimate the baby’s growth and development
  • Measurements of your baby's head, belly, and upper leg bone, to estimate his or her weight
  • Comparing your baby’s birth weight with his or her gestational age. The doctor may use a formula to figure out your baby’s body mass.

A birth weight of less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces is diagnosed as low birth weight. Babies weighing less than 3 pounds, 4 ounces at birth are considered very low birth weight.

Treatments

How is low birth weight treated?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

Treatment for low birth weight often includes:

  • Care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)
  • Temperature-controlled bed
  • Special feedings. Sometimes these are given through a tube into the stomach if a baby cannot suck. Or they are given through an IV (intravenous) line.

How well a baby with low birth weight does depends largely on how much the baby weighs at birth. Babies who weigh less than 1 pound, 1.5 ounces (500 grams) have the most problems and are less likely to survive.

Low-birth-weight babies typically "catch up" in physical growth if they have no other complications. Babies may need to have special follow-up healthcare programs.

What are the complications of low birth weight?

Low-birth-weight babies often have problems. The baby's tiny body is not as strong as a baby of normal birth weight. He or she may have a harder time eating, gaining weight, and fighting infection. Low-birth-weight babies often have a hard time staying warm because they don't have much fat on their bodies.

Babies that are born premature often have complications. It is sometimes hard to tell if the problems are because they were born early, or because they are so small. In general, the lower the birth weight, the greater the risk for complications. The following are some of the common problems of low-birth-weight babies:

  • Low oxygen levels at birth
  • Difficulty staying warm
  • Difficulty feeding and gaining weight
  • Infection
  • Breathing problems and immature lungs (infant respiratory distress syndrome)
  • Nervous system problems, such as bleeding inside the brain (intraventricular hemorrhage)
  • Digestive problems, such as serious infection of the intestines (necrotizing enterocolitis)
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Babies with very low birth weight are at risk for long-term complications and disability. Long-term complications may include:

  • Cerebral palsy
  • Blindness
  • Deafness
  • Developmental delay 

Talk with your baby's healthcare provider for information about your baby's risks for complications.

Can low birth weight be prevented?

More babies are surviving even though they are born early and are very small. This is because of advances in the care of sick and premature babies. But preventing preterm births is one of the best ways to prevent babies born with low birth weight.

Regular prenatal care is the best way to prevent preterm births and low-birth-weight babies. At prenatal visits, the healthcare provider will check the health of you and your fetus. It is important to:

  • Follow a healthy diet during pregnancy. This will help you to gain enough weight to help your baby grow and help you stay healthy. 
  • Not drink alcohol, smoke, or use drugs. All of these can cause low birth weight and other problems for your baby. 

Key points about low birth weight

  • Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams).

  • Babies weighing less than 3 pounds, 5 ounces (1,500 grams) at birth are considered very low birth weight.
  • Low birth weight is most often caused by premature birth.
  • Nearly all low-birth-weight babies need special care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) until they gain weight and are well enough to go home.
  • Regular prenatal care is the best way to prevent preterm births and low-birth-weight babies.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.

How is very low birth weight treated?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. Very-low-birth-weight babies may need:

  • Care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)
  • Temperature-controlled beds
  • Special feedings, sometimes with a tube into the stomach if the baby cannot suck
  • Other treatments for complications

The outcome for a very-low-birth-weight baby depends largely on how much the baby weighs at birth. The smallest babies have the most problems and are less likely to survive.

Very-low-birth-weight babies may have a harder time "catching up" in physical growth because they often have other complications. Many very-low-birth-weight babies are referred to special follow-up healthcare programs.

What are the complications of very low birth weight?

Babies with a very low birth weight have increased risk of developing complications. Their tiny bodies are not as strong as babies of normal weight. They may have a harder time eating, gaining weight, and fighting infection. Because they have so little body fat, they often have trouble staying warm in normal temperatures.

Many babies with a very low birth weight are also premature. This can make it difficult to separate the problems caused by the prematurity from the problems of just being so tiny. In general, the lower the baby's birth weight, the greater the risks for complications. Here are some of the most common problems of very-low-birth-weight babies:

  • Low oxygen levels at birth
  • Trouble staying warm
  • Difficulty feeding and gaining weight
  • Infection
  • Breathing problems because of immature lungs or infant respiratory distress syndrome
  • Nervous system problems, such as bleeding inside the brain
  • Serious digestive problems, such as necrotizing enterocolitis
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Almost all very-low-birth-weight babies need special care in the NICU until they can gain weight and are well enough to go home.

Risks for long-term complications and disability are increased for babies with very low birth weight. Long-term complications may include:

  • Cerebral palsy
  • Blindness
  • Deafness
  • Developmental delay 

Talk with your baby's healthcare provider about your baby’s risks for complications.

Can very low birth weight be prevented?

Because of advances in the care of sick and premature babies, more babies are surviving even though they are born early and very small. But preventing preterm births is one of the best ways to prevent very low birth weight.

Regular prenatal care is the best way to prevent preterm births and very-low-birth-weight babies. At prenatal visits, the health of you and your unborn baby are checked. It is important to:

  • Follow a healthy diet during pregnancy. This will help you to gain enough weight to help your baby to grow and you to stay healthy. 
  • Avoid alcohol, smoking, and drugs. All of these can cause low birth weight and other problems for your baby. 

Key points about very low birth weight

  • Very low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 3 pounds, 4 ounces.
  • The main cause of very low birth weight is preterm birth.
  • Treatment for very low birth weight babies includes care in the NICU, temperature-controlled beds, and special feedings.
  • In general, the lower the baby's birth weight, the greater the risks for complications.
  • Prenatal care is a key factor in preventing preterm births and very low birth weight.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.
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