Your body needs cholesterol to work well. But cholesterol levels that are too high can harm you.
Extra cholesterol in your blood builds up inside the walls of your blood vessels. This buildup is called plaque, or atherosclerosis. Plaque reduces, or even stops, the blood flow. This can cause a heart attack, stroke, or other serious heart or blood vessel disease.
Cholesterol is measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). All men should have their blood cholesterol levels tested every 5 years, starting at age 35; all women should do the same, starting at age 45. Many people should have their blood cholesterol levels tested at a younger age, possibly as early as age 20 if they have risk factors for heart disease. Have your cholesterol checked more often (probably every year) if you have:
A blood cholesterol test measures the level of total cholesterol. This includes both HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol.
Your LDL level is what doctors watch most closely. You want it to be low. If it gets too high, you will need to treat it.
You may also need medicine to lower your cholesterol.
You want your HDL cholesterol to be high.
It is still important to eat right, keep a healthy weight, and exercise even if:
These healthy habits may help prevent future heart attacks and other health problems.
Eat foods that are naturally low in fat. These include whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Using low-fat toppings, sauces, and dressings will help.
Look at food labels. Avoid foods that are high in saturated fat. Eating too much of this type of fat can lead to heart disease.
Eat foods that are high in fiber. Good fibers to eat are oats, bran, split peas and lentils, beans (such as kidney, black, and navy beans), some cereals, and brown rice.
Learn how to shop for and cook foods that are healthy for your heart. Learn how to read food labels to choose healthy foods. Stay away from fast foods, where healthy choices can be hard to find.
Getting plenty of exercise will also help. Talk with your doctor about what kind of exercise might be best for you.
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Mozaffarian D. Nutrition and cardiovascular disease. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders; 2011:chap 48.