Cranial CT scan

Definition

A cranial computed tomography (CT) scan uses many x-rays to create pictures of the head, including the skull, brain, eye sockets, and sinuses.

Alternative Names

Brain CT; Head CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial

How the Test is Performed

You will be asked to lie on a narrow table that slides into the center of the CT scanner.

While inside the scanner, the machine's x-ray beam rotates around you.

A computer creates separate images of the body area, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional models of the head area can be created by stacking the slices together.

You must be still during the exam, because movement causes blurred images. You may be told to hold your breath for short periods of time.

Complete scans usually take only a few minutes. The newest scanners can image your entire body, head to toe, in less than 30 seconds.

How to Prepare for the Test

Certain exams require a special dye, called contrast, to be delivered into the body before the test starts. Contrast helps certain areas show up better on x-rays.

If you weigh more than 300 pounds, find out if the CT machine has a weight limit. Some machines do.

You will be asked to remove jewelry and wear a hospital gown during the study.

How the Test Will Feel

The x-rays produced by the CT scan are painless. Some people may have discomfort from lying on the hard table.

Contrast given through a vein may cause a slight burning feeling, a metallic taste in the mouth, and a warm flushing of the body. This is normal and usually goes away within a few seconds.

Why the Test is Performed

A cranial CT scan is recommended to help diagnose or monitor the following conditions:

A cranial CT may also be done to look for the cause of:

What Abnormal Results Mean

Abnormal results may be due to:

Risks

Risks of CT scans include:

CT scans use more radiation than regular x-rays. Having many x-rays or CT scans over time may increase your risk for cancer. However, the risk from any one scan is small. You and your doctor should weigh this risk against the benefits of getting a correct diagnosis for a medical problem.

Some people have allergies to contrast dye. Let your doctor know if you have ever had an allergic reaction to injected contrast dye.

Rarely, the dye may cause a life-threatening allergic response called anaphylaxis. If you have any trouble breathing during the test, you should notify the scanner operator immediately. Scanners come with an intercom and speakers, so someone can hear you at all times.

Considerations

A CT scan can reduce or avoid the need for invasive procedures to diagnose problems in the skull. This is one of the safest ways to study the head and neck.

Other tests that may be done instead of Cranial CT scan include:

References

Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, eds. Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 4.

Saunders D, Jäger HR, Murray AD, Stevens JM. Skull and brain: methods of examination and anatomy. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, eds. Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 55.


Review Date: 12/10/2012
Reviewed By: Javed Qureshi, MD, American Board of Radiology, Victoria Radiology Associates, Victoria, TX. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, and Stephanie Slon.
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