Breath odor


Breath odor is the scent of the air you breathe out of your mouth. Unpleasant, distinctive, or offensive breath odor is commonly called bad breath.

Alternative Names

Bad breath; Halitosis


Some disorders will produce specific, characteristic odors to the breath.

Bad breath related to poor oral hygiene is most common and caused by release of sulphur compounds by bacteria in the mouth.

A fruity odor to the breath occurs as the body attempts to get rid of excess acetone through the breathing. This is a sign of ketoacidosis, which may occur in diabetes. It is a potentially life-threatening condition.

Breath that smells like feces can occur with prolonged vomiting, especially when there is a bowel obstruction. It may also occur temporarily if a person has a tube placed through the nose or mouth to the stomach to drain the stomach contents (nasogastric tube) in place.

The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or "fishy") in people with chronic kidney failure.


Bad breath can be caused by:

Diseases that may be associated with breath odor:

Home Care

Use proper dental hygiene (especially flossing), and remember that mouthwashes are not effective in treating the underlying problem.

Fresh parsley or a strong mint are often effective ways to fight temporary bad breath. Avoid smoking. Otherwise, follow prescribed therapy to treat the underlying cause.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

What to Expect at Your Office Visit

Your doctor will take a medical history and perform a physical examination.

You may be asked the following medical history questions:

The physical examination will include a thorough examination of the mouth and the nose. A throat culture may be taken if you have a sore throat or mouth sores.

In rare cases, diagnostic tests that may be performed include:

Antibiotics may be prescribed for some conditions. For an object in the nose, the doctor will use an instrument to remove it.

Review Date: 2/22/2012
Reviewed By: Paul Fotek, DMD, Florida Institute for Periodontics & Dental lmplants, West Palm Beach, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
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